Romain Laugier, PhD student contributing to the KERNEL project, saw his first paper accepted by the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. The paper shows how images affected by some amount of saturation can be salvaged to make them kernel-compatible again.
Using an archival HST/NICMOS dataset from 1997, Romain was able to show on a known low-mass binary that the recovery algorithm is effective. The signature of the 4.36 magnitude contrast companion, invisible in the original image, is present in the kernel-phase extracted from that image. This kernel-signature was used to constrain the position and contrast of the companion.
This new resolved observation of the low mass companion to Gl 494 along with other recently published images, combined with a long series of archival radial velocity observations by two instruments, lead to very strong constraints on the orbital elements, and ultimately, the dynamical masses of this binary object.
Congratulations to Romain for successfully bringing this paper to the finish line: may this be the first of many others to come! The preprint version of the paper is available for download on the arXiv.org website: http://arxiv.org/abs/1901.02824
A few months ago, I heard about an innovation contest organized by SATT Sud-Est, a company that attempts to facilitate the transfer of technology from laboratories to the industry. The application process looked simple enough so I gave it a shot. It turns out that my application: basically a pitch for robust high-contrast instrumentation (aka a kernel-nuller), was among the ten selected for a live oratory contest that was held just a few days ago, in the city of Avignon inside the famous “Palais des Papes“.
Without direct industrial prospect for the kernel-nuller, it is no surprise that my pitch was not selected as the final winner. The awards went to Dr. Christine Contino-Pepin and Pr. Michel Alain Bartoli who will I have no doubt, be able to turn their ideas into profitable businesses!
Nevertheless, this was a lovely evening, and according to the feedback I received during the networking event that followed, attendees were quite intrigued and enthusiastic about the project. This is the real magic of astronomy in general and of extrasolar planets in particular that still manage to trigger people’s imagination. Even if science in general isn’t the most popular topic of conversation out there, public conferences about astronomy still manage to draw reasonably large and passionate crowds! If only we could trigger the same kind of amazement for all of the other sciences, the world would certainly be a better place!
Le jeudi 4 octobre 2018 à l’Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, j’ai enfin pu soutenir ma thèse d’habilitation à diriger des recherches (HDR), intitulée: “Repousser les limites de la diffraction pour l’astronomie à haute résolution angulaire”.
Après une (un peu trop longue?) présentation de mon travail de recherche depuis la soutenance de ma thèse de doctorat, en juillet 2005 et une série de questions, le jury composé de:
Jean Surdej, Université de Liège (Président du jury)
David Mouillet, IPAG (Rapporteur)
David Mary, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis (Rapporteur)
Olivier Guyon, Université d’Arizona (Rapporteur)
Jean François Sauvage, ONERA Chatillon (Examinateur)
Anthony Boccaletti, Observatoire de Paris (Examinateur)
Farrokh Vakili, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur (Examinateur)
m’a fait l’honneur de me décerner l’habilitation à diriger des recherches en sciences… voilà une bonne chose de faite!
The KERNEL project, hosted by Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur (OCA) invites applications for a postdoctoral research position in the field of high-angular resolution astronomy starting no later than February 1, 2019. This position is funded by the European Research Council (ERC – CoG – grand agreement #683029) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program.
The KERNEL project
KERNEL aims at enabling every optical and infrared astronomical facility to reach its ultimate angular resolution potential, often pushing beyond the formal diffraction limit, while preserving the full sensitivity. By looking at astronomical data as the result of an interferometric process, the KERNEL framework brings much needed robustness to high-performance observing techniques, required for instance for the direct detection of extrasolar planets.
The KERNEL framework offers a wide range applications that go from the post-processing of available archival data to high-performance focal plane metrology, partly coupled with high-contrast imaging. In order to develop and prototype the next generation of high-performance instruments and metrology monitoring tools for ground based telescopes and interferometers, the completion of the KERNEL project includes the construction of a general purpose test-bench, with elements that have already been successfully deployed for on-sky applications. The postdoc responsibility will be to oversee the completion of this KERNEL test-bench.
The test-bench primarily relies on a high-order segmented deformable mirror used to modulate the phase across a diffractive aperture and a high-cadence low-readout near-infrared camera, simultaneously in up to four complementary spectral bandpasses.
The multi-band aspect of the bench expands on the capability already offered by the KERNEL framework:
it extends the range of tolerated input instrumental phase, with applications such fringe tracking for long baseline interferometry and adaptive optics for large telescopes.
it provides further calibration capability, allowing for the acquisition of spectral differential kernel-phases
In addition, with its simple but agile high-contrast mode, the bench will also make it possible to experimentally validate observing strategies devised in the context of the project that bring robustness to aberrations to high-contrast direct detection.
How to apply
A Ph.D. in astronomy, physics, or a closely related field is mandatory. We are interested in individuals with several years of post-PhD research experience in the development and the scientific exploitation of instrumentation in the field of high angular resolution astronomy that include active wavefront compensation either in the laboratory or at the telescope. The candidate should be willing to collaborate with and assist graduate students that will use the KERNEL bench for their research projects. The candidate will also be encouraged to take advantage of the experimental setup and the KERNEL project members expertise to pursue his/her own research interests.
The candidate must also possess a strong background in the modeling, reduction and interpretation of diffraction dominated data (interferograms and/or AO-corrected images). Experience with the Python and/or the C programming language is highly desirable.
The initial appointment will be for two years, with possible extensions up to four years. The successful candidate will be hosted by the Lagrange Laboratory, with a lab located on the campus of Valrose, downtown the beautiful city of Nice, France.
To apply, please send a copy of your curriculum vitae, and a summary of your research interests. Also arrange for three reference letters to be sent to Frantz Martinache (firstname.lastname@example.org). For full consideration, applications should be received before September 15, 2018, although applications will be reviewed up until the position is filled.
The KERNEL project, hosted by Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur (OCA) invites applications for a PhD project in the field of high-angular resolution astronomy. This position is funded by the European Research Council (ERC – CoG – grand agreement #683029) under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program. The add was also posted on EURAXESS.
The adaptive optics revolution
Adaptive Optics (AO) has changed the face of observational astronomy, making ground based telescope able to live up to their angular resolution potential, and allowing us to dream up the upcoming generation of large 30m-class giant segmented mirror telescopes (GSMTs). Yet despite its incredible achievements, AO still hasn’t fully succeded in bringing the quality of astronomical images to its full potential, required for modern observing techniques such as high-contrast imaging and/or coupling into single mode fibers, enabling the use of photonic technology.
Objectives of the PhD project
The next major breakthrough will come from using information of great
value, available in the focal plane, to directly to drive AO systems.
Such an approach is finally possible today, thanks to the availability
of high-cadence, low readout noise near-infrared detectors and that of
enhanced real time computing capabilities. Observatoire de la Côte
d’Azur (OCA) and the Subaru Telescope are teaming up to offer a PhD
project that will turn this ambitious goal into a reality. This PhD is
funded by the KERNEL project. It will be co-supervised by the KERNEL
project PI F. Martinache (OCA) and the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme AO
(SCExAO) project lead O. Guyon (Subaru Telescope).
The successful applicant will benefit from state of the art hardware and expertise along with access to two complementary experimental setups, both taking advantage of the same software environment:
the KERNEL test-bench, located in Nice (France), with a unique multi-wavelength capability, and a segmented deformable provides the means to prototype applications for GSMTs and long baseline interferometry developments.
the SCExAO instrument itself, installed at the Nasmyth focus of the Subaru Telescope, located atop Mauna Kea (Hawaii USA), provides the means to validate strategies using unique on-sky validation capability and have a rapid impact on the community.
The PhD should preferably start in the Fall 2018. To apply, the candidate is required to send (email email@example.com) a copy of his vita, and a letter detailing his/her interest in the project along with a transcript of his/her master degree in physics, astronomy or a relevant engineering specialty. The candidate should be willing to work as part of a team, to collaborate with an international network of people involved with a wide variety of activities: data processing, astrophysical modeling, observing at the telescope, experimentation in optics and real-time computing.
Dans le but de soutenir mon Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches (HDR), j’ai soumis à mes rapporteurs la première version de cette thèse, intitulée: “Repousser les limites de la diffraction pour l’astronomie à haute résolution angulaire”.
Deux versions de cette thèse sont téléchargeables ici au format PDF:
Pour la troisième année, j’interviens dans le programme MEDITES dans un parcours pédagogique qui présente la recherche en astrophysique à des élèves du secondaire. Cette année, le parcours est focalisé sur les méthodes observationnelles en astronomie: astrométrie, photométrie et spectroscopie, et parlent en particulier de la mission Gaia. Les supports des présentations que j’ai préparés pour l’astrométrie et la photométrie sont disponibles ici.
La parallaxe: trouver notre place dans l’univers
Photométrie et exoplanètes
Pour ce parcours, j’ai mis au point et construit une expérience constituée d’un simulateur motorisé de couple étoile-planète et d’une mesure photométrique temps réel par une photodiode connectée à une carte Arduino. J’ai également développé un petit programme d’acquisition des données collectées par la carte Arduino qui permet de faire du traitement a posteriori des données photométriques. Un tutoriel décrivant la fabrication et l’utilisation de cette expérience sera publié cette année par le site du service éducatif de l’Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur.
These are the slides of a presentation given on March 8, 2018 at IPAG, where I present research activities related to the KERNEL project, in particular the most recent development concerning the idea of kernel-nulling interferometry.
You can access the presentation file directly here.
Wherever I go, the Moon is following me!!
It is an experience surprisingly shared by many: Have you ever felt like the Moon was following you as you drive along a straight road at night? Are we really all that special or is there a simple explanation to this very common perception?
If you carefully look at the following animation, you will notice that, as our character drives along the road, things in the picture do not apparently move at the same speed. Right by the car, the roadside seems to fly by, while the trees, a little further away do seem to move a little slower. The far away mountains also drift, albeit very slowly.
Consider this, the distance that separates the road from the mountains is only of a few dozens of kilometers and they already barely seem to move as one drives by. With this in mind, are you really that surprised that the Moon (400,000 km away) and the stars (light years away) do seem immobile?
Of course, if you wait long enough, because of the Earth’s spin, the postion of the Moon and the stars will begin to drift. But let’s assume that for a few minutes, they don’t. As our character drives along the road, and covers some distance, by looking at how much the mountains have drifted in relation with the “fixed” sky (measuring an angle), he should be able to tell how far the mountain range is from the road.
In astronomy, this principle is used to figure out the distance to the most nearby stars.
Astronomy and Instrumentation by Frantz Martinache